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Executive Agreement Approval

9.4.2021

The ex ante executive agreements of Congress are similar to many administrative provisions, as they are often based on vague or broad legal authorizations and are concluded by a large number of executive agencies. Some of the same concerns expressed in the framework of administrative regulation – legality, the registration of interest groups, reckless or corrupt bureaucratic measures, etc. – are also related to ex ante agreements between Congress and the executive branch. But there is at least one key difference: administrative provisions are subject to a complex administrative framework, but ex ante agreements between Congress and the executive branch are not subject to administrative law or any other accountability framework that goes beyond an incomplete and unreased reporting obligation. During this period, John Hay, as McKinley`s Foreign Minister, initiated his “open door” policy with notes to Britain, Germany and Russia, which were quickly followed by notes similar to those of France, Italy and Japan. They essentially asked the beneficiaries to formally declare that they would not seek to expand their respective interests in China at the expense of one of the others; and all responded positively.477 Then, in 1905, the first Roosevelt to reach a diplomatic agreement with Japan initiated an exchange of views between the then Minister of War Taft in the Far East and Count Katsura, who amounted to a secret treaty by which the Roosevelt administration committed to establishing a military protectorate in Korea by Japan.478 Three years later Three years later , Foreign Minister Root and the Japanese Ambassador to Washington concluded the root-Takahira 479 agreement Meanwhile, in 1907, through a “gentleman`s agreement”, Mikado`s government had agreed to stem the emigration of Japanese subsectors to the United States and thus relieve the Washington government of the need to take measures that would have cost Japan the loss. The end result of this series of executive agreements affecting U.S. relations in the Far East and the Far East was the result of President Wilson`s diplomacy. It was the Agreement of Lansing Ishii, 480 With the case of France in June 1940, President Roosevelt concluded two executive agreements whose overall effect was the role of the United States of strict neutrality with regard to European war in one of the half-wars.

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